It was right out of a science fiction movie, and unlike anything previously attempted on such a scale. Our goal was to spend those two years studying how a mini-biosphere—complete with wilderness areas, a farm and a group of humans—would work with as few outside inputs as possible. A privately funded venture, Biosphere 2 had three main goals—education, eco-technology development and learning how well our eco-laboratory worked. We also hoped to help NASA and other space agencies learn more about life-support systems for long-term space missions. I lived in a miniature Earth to better understand fundamental processes of biospheres to improve how humans relate to our world. Our crew—the biospherians—consisted of a multinational tribe: five Americans, two Brits and one Belgian; we were four men and four women. We included a botanist, a marine biologist and a physician. I managed the wastewater recycling system and assisted in ecological and agricultural research. Together we became the first natives of a new techno-living synthesis. The planning and construction of Biosphere 2 took seven years.
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Home - Planet - Concepts - What is the biosphere? This layer ranges from heights of up to ten kilometres above sea level, used by some birds in flight, to depths of the ocean such as the Puerto Rico trench, at more than 8 kilometres deep. These are the extremes; however, in general the layer of the Earth containing life is thin: the upper atmosphere has little oxygen and very low temperatures, while ocean depths greater than m are dark and cold. In fact, it has been said that the biosphere is like the peel in relation to the size of an apple.
The biosphere is a global ecosystem composed of living organisms biota and the abiotic nonliving factors from which they derive energy and nutrients. Before the coming of life, Earth was a bleak place, a rocky globe with shallow seas and a thin band of gases—largely carbon dioxide , carbon monoxide , molecular nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide , and water vapour. It was a hostile and barren planet. This strictly inorganic state of the Earth is called the geosphere; it consists of the lithosphere the rock and soil , the hydrosphere the water , and the atmosphere the air. Energy from the Sun relentlessly bombarded the surface of the primitive Earth, and in time—millions of years—chemical and physical actions produced the first evidence of life: formless, jellylike blobs that could collect energy from the environment and produce more of their own kind. The biosphere is a system characterized by the continuous cycling of matter and an accompanying flow of solar energy in which certain large molecules and cells are self-reproducing. Water is a major predisposing factor, for all life depends on it. The elements carbon , hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur, when combined as proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids, provide the building blocks, the fuel, and the direction for the creation of life. Energy flow is required to maintain the structure of organisms by the formation and splitting of phosphate bonds. Organisms are cellular in nature and always contain some sort of enclosing membrane structure , and all have nucleic acids that store and transmit genetic information.
This lists the logos of programs or partners of NG Education which have provided or contributed the content on this page. Powered by. The biosphere is made up of the parts of Earth where life exists. The biosphere extends from the deepest root system s of trees, to the dark environment of ocean trench es, to lush rain forest s and high mountain tops. Scientists describe the Earth in terms of sphere s. The solid surface layer of the Earth is the lithosphere. The atmosphere is the layer of air that stretches above the lithosphere. Since life exists on the ground, in the air, and in the water, the biosphere overlaps all these spheres.