Perhaps best known as being responsible for activating our "fight-or-flight" response, cortisol is the body's main stress hormone. It elevates your heart rate, raises you blood pressure and kicks the body into overdrive, flooding the brain with blood and oxygen allowing it to dilate time as it makes a snap decision. An evolutionary defense mechanism designed for self-preservation, cortisol when left to run wild can wreak havoc on the body, causing panic attacks and potentially a whole host of other problems.
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A term for a musical framework used during the Baroque period for songs, dances and sets of variations. In the late 17th century a related, alternative form gained popularity and for some time co-existed with the original model. The history of the folia predates the earliest surviving musical sources. You do not currently have access to this article. Please login to access the full content. Printed from Grove Music Online. Grove is a registered trademark.
The theme exists in two versions, referred to as early and late folias , the earlier being faster. Recent research suggests that the origin of the folia framework lies in the application of a specific compositional and improvisational method to simple melodies in minor mode. Thus, the essence of the "early Folia" was not a specific theme or a fixed sequence of chords but rather a compositional-improvisational process which could generate these sequences of chords. This theme generally appears at the start and end of a given "folia" composition, serving as "bookends" for a set of variations within which both the melodic line and even the meter may vary. In turn, written sets of variations on the "later Folia" may contain sections consisting of more freely structured music, even in the semblance of partial or pure improvisation a practice which might be compared in structural concept, if very different in musical material, to the performance in twelve-bar blues and other standard chord progressions that became common in the twentieth century. Several sources report that Jean-Baptiste Lully was the first composer to formalize the standard chord progression and melodic line. The progression emerged between the end of the 15th century and the beginning of the 16th century in vocal repertory found in both Italian "Canzoniere di Montecassino", "Canzoniere di Perugia" and in the frottola repertoire and Spanish sources mainly in the " Cancionero Musical de Palacio " and, some years later, in the ensaladas repertoire. The framework of the "Later Folia", in the key of G minor , the key that is most often used for the "later Folia"; one chord per bar except for the cadential penultimate bar.